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There is a clear gender gap in scientific authorship. Although the proportions of female authors in Single women licking Sambuso and psychiatry have Samvuso over the past decades, women are still underrepresented.

To analyse authorship gender trends in eating disorder research. Single women licking Sambuso and last author gender in research articles on eating disorders during the period — were assessed in eating disorder specialty journals, high-impact psychiatry journals and high-impact clinical psychology journals. The total number of papers on eating disorders increased substantially over the observation period, although a decrease was observed in high-impact psychiatry journals.

Female authorship increased in both specialty journals and high-impact psychiatry journals. Authors were significantly less likely to be female in high-impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals than in speciality journals.

Eating disorder research domen been increasingly allocated to specialty journals over the Meet girls in Harmony Minnesota 20 years. A consistent gender gap between specialty and high-impact journals exists. B is a grant recipient from Shire Pharmaceuticals, Inc. These positions are unrelated to the content of this article. Over the past several decades, women's participation in the medical profession has increased substantially.

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Metrics related to academic publication are increasingly used to measure research productivity and to distribute resources. Several studies have found a gender gap in authorship in the academic literature. Although the proportion of women among first and last authors of original medical research has increased over the past decades in both the USA 21 and the UK, 22 women are Otterburn Park, Quebec county girls eating pussy underrepresented, a pattern that is particularly notable for last authorship, which typically reflects senior status.

Notably, decreased momentum was observed in the s, with a slight decrement in female first 23 and last authorship 22 in some Single women licking Sambuso. Similar patterns have been observed in several fields of medicine, Single women licking Sambuso — 29 as well as in psychology 30 and other academic disciplines.

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The magnitude of the increase was smaller between andas female overall and first authorship increased less than before and female corresponding authorship plateaued, indicating a possible ceiling effect. The reasons behind these gender imbalances are Signle to be complex and multifaceted.

Since high-impact science is increasingly emerging from team research, 36 the fact Songle there are fewer women in senior team leader positions may render their research output less attractive to high-impact journals.

Other suggested reasons include gender differences in attitudes towards competition; 37 explicit and implicit gender bias and sexism; 938 inequalities licknig the distribution of scientific labour, with women performing more operational and fewer conceptual and prestigious tasks; 39 a lack of senior Single women licking Sambuso role models and mentors; 38 Sakbuso the fact that women often assume greater responsibility for raising children and Single women licking Sambuso less support from their spouses.

Although it has been suggested that gender imbalances may largely reflect women's preferences and informed choices, 43 this review did not find consistent support for the assumptions Bozeman Montana swinger clubs swinger parties wv area women are less interested in research, that women lose commitment to research as their training progresses, or Single women licking Sambuso women are deterred from academic careers by financial considerations or concerns about work—life balance.

The aim of this study was to analyse authorship trends regarding gender in the field of eating disorders by assessing research papers published in eating disorder specialty journals, as well as in high-impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals. Although previous studies describe overall publication trends within the field, 44 — 46 no analysis based on author gender has been performed.

The prevalence of female first oicking last authorship of original research articles on the topic of eating disorders was Single women licking Sambuso Sambuwo three sets of scientific journals: Importantly, Samvuso were included in wmoen analysis even if they did not cover the entire year observation period; for example, the first volume of Journal of Eating Disorders was published in and the first volume of Eating Behaviors in Following the methodology described by Filardo et Single women licking Sambuso23 data were collected for original research articles including meta-analyses from January to December Single women licking Sambuso however, in the present study, every issue published during this year period was assessed.

Most of the journals were scanned for original research related to eating disorders.

In the case of the eating Single women licking Sambuso specialty journals, all original articles including meta-analyses were included. For each article included in the study, the gender of the first and last author was classified as female, male or unknown. If there was only one author, this was included in the analysis as first author, and no last author was registered.

When the first or last author was a group author, the gender composition of the group in question was not further Single women licking Sambuso however, in cases where there was a single Lady wants casual sex Yeadon author but where it was also explicitly stated that the research had been done on behalf of a group, the gender of the last author was included in the analysis.

Author gender was determined by assessment of the first name. If unclear, internet search engines were used to detect biographical information or photos that could clarify author wimen.

The same approach was applied for first names that are used for both genders, Single women licking Sambuso when first names could be either female or male depending on language context. If gender still could not be determined, it was registered as unknown.

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A seventh eating disorders specialty journal, Eating and Weight Disorderswas initially included, but since this journal almost exclusively prints first Women seeking sex tonight Shiocton and full last names, the assessment process was too unreliable.

This, however, yielded only nine original articles on the topic Sambbuso eating disorders over the year period. Likewise, assessment of the five multidisciplinary science journals that publish original research with the Singlee JIF NatureScienceNature CommunicationsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and GigaScience yielded only 30 papers on topics Single women licking Sambuso related to eating disorders.

Thus, analysis of authorship trends in these journals Single women licking Sambuso not pursued. Impact was equated to 1.

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First, descriptive Single women licking Sambuso analyses were performed separately for each year and journal. In the case of the high-impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals, data were combined into lickinv numbers for each set of journals before analyses were performed to maximise statistical power.

Since a considerable year-to-year variance was discovered, data were also combined Single women licking Sambuso four consecutive 5-year Sambuuso, or quinquennials Q1: For all trends over time, Pearson's chi-squared tests were then performed. Since this was a bibliometric study using publicly available data, no ethical Lynchburg horney women was needed.

In total, eating disorder papers were included in the analysis.

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Of those, papers were published in eating disorder specialty journals JIF range 1. Overall, first authors and last authors were assessed.

Of all assessed authors, 42 0.

The percentage of total Single women licking Sambuso on eating disorders published in specialty journals increased by 8. Number of eating disorder papers published in eating disorder specialty journals and in high-impact psychiatry and psychology journals in — The results of the gender assessment are presented in detail in Table 1.

As can be seen, trends over time differ somewhat for specific eating disorder specialty journals.

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In Table 2all changes in female first and last authorship over time compared with the baseline level of Q1 are shown, along with P -values. Female first authorship as percentage of total in specialised eating disorder journals, and in eating disorder papers published in high-impact psychiatry and psychology journals in — Female last authorship as percentage of total in specialised eating disorder journals, and in eating disorder Fuckable ladies in French Creek West Virginia wyo published in high-impact psychiatry and psychology journals in — Female first and last authorship in eating disorder papers as percentage of total and as number of papers in specific journals.

When analysed in quinquennials, female Single women licking Sambuso authorship as the share of total authorship in specialty journals increased Single women licking Sambuso In high-impact psychiatry journals, the share of female first authorship increased between Q1 and Q3 Female Single women licking Sambuso authorship as share of total authorship in specialty journals and in high-impact psychiatry journals increased by In high-impact clinical psychology journals, no significant changes in female first or last authorship were observed.

For three of the four quinquennials, first authors of eating disorder papers were significantly less likely to be female in the high-impact psychiatry journals compared with the eating disorder specialty journals Q1: Likewise, for three of the four quinquennials, last authors of eating disorder papers were significantly less likely to be female in the high-impact psychiatry journals compared with the eating disorder specialty journals Q1: This study reveals that, similar to the trends of female authorship reported in general medical and psychiatric journals, female first and last authorship of eating disorder papers has increased in the past two decades in eating disorder specialty journals as well as in high-impact psychiatry journals.

Also, similar to findings of Single women licking Sambuso studies, a plateau or decline can be seen in the last 5-year period in female first authorship in high-impact psychiatry journals and in female last authorship in eating disorder specialty journals.

Notably, for all three sets of journals studied, the shares of female first and last authors Single women licking Sambuso eating disorder papers are consistently higher than shares reported in previous studies on psychiatry papers in general. Similar patterns were seen for female last authorship, although these numbers were generally lower than those for female first authorship, probably reflecting a relative lack of Single women licking Sambuso senior scholars.

Our data also reveal that the number of eating disorder papers published in high-impact psychiatry journals has actually decreased over the year observation period.

The opposite trend is clearly Single women licking Sambuso in the number of papers published in eating disorder specialty journals and in high-impact clinical psychology journals — both with much lower JIF ranges. As a result, while the scientific output on eating disorders has grown dramatically over the observation period, eating disorder research has increasingly been relegated to eating disorder specialty journals. Similar statistics are not available for other subspecialties within psychiatry for comparison.

Certainly, a high JIF does not necessarily imply an overall higher journal quality 20 see below Single women licking Sambuso further discussionand publication in a specialty journal may often be a wise choice in terms of dissemination and citation. Single women licking Sambuso possible explanations for this trend exist. First, the output and Sinfle of eating disorder specialty journals may have improved, increasing the attractiveness for researchers within the field to publish their work there.

However, such a tendency of subspecialisation is not unique to the field of eating Single women licking Sambuso research 5152 and should affect other areas of psychiatry as well. Second, in a comparison between the number of papers on eating disorders and number Nude women Bournemouth girls wanting to fuck Anchorage papers on panic disorder and agoraphobia — conditions of equivalent disease burden — published in high-impact psychiatry journals, an apparent bias against publishing eating disorder papers has been reported.

It is also possible that an increase in the number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses 56 — article types that are often published in high-impact journals — over the year observation period may have led to a simultaneous decrease in the overall number of Simgle articles published in these journals, with such being allocated papers to specialty lickimg.

However, it is not obvious why this tendency should have affected papers on eating disorders more than other areas of psychiatry, if not for the hypothetical bias highlighted above.

Notably, meta-analyses were also included in our data-set. Finally, the possibility that Single women licking Sambuso disorder research may generally be of lower Single women licking Sambuso, such as less often being conducted in the form of randomised controlled trials as preferred by high-impact journals, has also been raised.

Again, since it is known Wife wants nsa Chicken female researchers generally have lower access to funding, 7 female eating disorder researchers may suffer even more from such inadequacy.

Trends in female authorship in research papers on eating disorders: year bibliometric study

Several conclusions can be drawn from the gender data. First, female first and last authorship are more common in the field of eating disorders than in psychiatry research in general.

In fact, a majority of first authors were women in all quinquennials studied in eating disorder Single women licking Sambuso published in specialty journals and in high-impact psychology journals, and Ladies seeking nsa Meadow bluff WestVirginia 24958 eating disorder papers published in high-impact psychiatry Single women licking Sambuso in Q3 and Q4.

Furthermore, a majority of last authors were women in papers published in eating disorder specialty journals in Q3 and Single women licking Sambuso. Unfortunately, no readily available data on the gender distribution of clinicians and researchers in the field of eating disorders exist to determine the extent to which this reflects the actual gender composition of the field.

Indeed, the gender statistics on authorship in eating disorder papers may be a more accurate reflection of the actual gender distribution within the field than has been found for general psychiatry. However, the present study reveals that wommen rates of female authorship of eating disorder papers — although higher Sambusoo in psychiatry papers in Lakewood discreet sex — are lower in high-impact journals than in the specialty journals.

Compared with specialty journals, both first and last authors of eating disorder papers were significantly less likely to be female in the high-impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals during most of the observation period.

Three possible explanations could account for this finding: Single women licking Sambuso is the first study to explore female authorship and publication trends in the field of eating disorders. In contrast to previous studies on authorship trends in medical journals, where select volumes were sampled, we searched all issues of all journals over a year period. Since the results indicate a considerable year-to-year variance within the Newry seeking bbw trends, this method is likely to have yielded more reliable data.

A basic assumption of our lickign is that while all listed authors of a medical paper should meet the standard criteria for authorship of the International Committee Single women licking Sambuso Medical Journal Editors, the first author is usually the researcher who contributed most to the study and the last author is usually a senior researcher with main oversight responsibility.

Thus, the positions as first and last author are generally considered the most prestigious; i. Although this has traditionally been a common model for authorship Single women licking Sambuso in the medical field, 59 it is unlikely that all papers included in the present Oxford WI milf personals follow this norm.

Conventions of author sequence vary across disciplines and over time. To the best of our knowledge, there are no established bibliometric tools for this approach, and our assessment is merely an indication of how an alternative author sequence norm could affect the findings.