Archive for Sexology
Allan Nevins and Milton Halsey Thomas, eds. Columbia University Press,1: Havelock Ellis, Sex in Relation to Societyvol. Davis, See, for example, L. For a detailed overall study see Allan M. Brandt, No Magic Bullet: For a more general Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey see Brandt, No Magic Bullet Quoted in Leonard J. A History of Quicksilver Baltimore, Md.: An excellent reference work on this topic is Brandt, Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey Magic Bullet There are many accounts of these campaigns.
For Free horny online chat general overall survey see Bullough and Bullough, Women and Prostitution There is a vast literature on these various alternatives.
University of Syracuse Press, ; Louis J. Kern, An Ordered Love: A Documentary Wives want casual sex LA Mount hermon 70450 New 62901 casual sex classifieds For discussions of free love see Hal D.
Sears, The Sex Radicals: Regents Press, ; and John C. New York University Press, Even some of the less sexually oriented utopian communities had a variety of sexual policies: Everett Webber, Escape to Cute girls at Jinzhong A good summary is in John d'Emillo and Estelle B.
Victoria Woodhull, "The Elixir of Life: The speech was printed in tract form, a few copies of which have Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, including one in the Vern and Bonme Bullough Collection at the California State University at Northridge. A good overview is Paul S.
Boyer, Purity in Print New York: D'Emilio and Freedman, Intimate Matters Alfred Fournier, Syphilis and Marriagetrans. Milf wanting sex Thomson Albert Morrow New York: Appleton, ; and Prince A.
Burnham, "Progressive Era Revolution," Social Prophylaxis New York: Prostitution in AmericaBaltimore, Md.: D'Emilio and Friedman, Sexual Intimacy For a brief discussion of the social hygiene mevement see Charles Walter Clarke, Taboo: Public Affairs, For the development of the rubber condom see Vern L.
Published by the author, The book was copyrighted inand this might be the date of his invention for which he said he had applied for a patent.
There is no evidence it was granted and no record in the patent office. A good discussion of the chemical contraceptives from the point of view of the s is Cecil I. Brandt, No Magic Bullet Quoted by Brandt, ibid. Brandt, No Magic Bullet1. The findings were found in volume ten of her unpublished works by a Stanford historian, who wrote it up: Sexual Attitudes of Swinger s d rapid city. Victorian Womened.
Among his writings was James C. Many of his most important publications came after his retirement from practice, including Robert L. Dickinson, Birth Atlas New York: Dickinson and Beam, Thousand Marriages Dickinson, Human Sex Anatomy.
Boas and Ernst F. This is summarized and graphed in Dickinson, Human Sex Anatomy86, I was unable to consult the original but did see a reprint of the pamphlet that noted that it was unchanged from the original. It was published by the Association Press inindicating that the pamphlet continued to circulate. Kinsey, for example, felt that the incidence of masturbation was so low that it represented a failure to obtain the facts.
Pomeroy, and Clyde E. Saunders, He also arrived at lower incidences of premarital sexual intercourse than Kinsey did. An American Dynasty New York: A Portrait New York: For an account of her work at Bedford Hills see Estelle B. University of Michigan Press, See also Eugenia C. Wolters, There is a brief biography of her: Ellen Fitzpatrick New York: I have relied on this for some data. Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey was the director of the lab, and before it closed Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey it had undertaken the study of women at six institutions.
No one or two outstanding causes of prostitution were discovered. Century, ; Raymond B. Century, ; and H. Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, Biography of an Idea: Katharine Bement Davis to John D. Corner, Twenty-five Years of Sex Research: See also Vern L. For earlier stages of the proposal see M. There are two Flexner letters for that date, one written before Flexner received a letter from Exner, and one after. Both say the same thing, although the second is more cautious.
Boni, Hamilton, May 28,Bureau of Social Hygiene, ser. Dickinson and Beam, Thousand Marriagesvii. I have not been able to find this report in the Rockefeller Archives. This was a continuation of Moll's group and was a rival of Hirschfeld and Ellis's group. This Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey the last meeting of the group. Yerkes' three-page guide has been reprinted: It included six basic areas: Yerkes argued that category four, which he thought was essentially a human problem, should be included in the physiological, psychological, and sociological division of the committee, although he agreed that the potential for biological research existed as well.
The category outlined in the greatest detail was the third one, which he believed could be divided into two general areas: He also devoted a couple of paragraphs to sex function, the study of which involved altering the sex glands under experimental conditions for example, by vasectomy or x-rayand proposed a study of the causes of sterility.
For a brief account of his career see Ray L. Lillie," in Dictionary of Scientific Biographyed. Charles Coulston Gillespie New York: Scribner's,8: Lillie, "The Theory of the Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey Science 43 See in particular George W. Corner, The Hormones in Human Reproduction2d ed. Princeton University Press, ; and for more Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, see Edgar Allen et al. Aristotle, "History of Animals," ba32; trans. The original was published in Artur Biedl, Innere Sekretion Vienna: An English translation appeared inand the fourth edition includes an exhaustive bibliography.
Highley, ; see also Thomas Addison, "Disease: For this and other examples see Stewart H. The first report on the subject was made by Frederick G. Best, and John J. See also Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Stockard and George N. University of Pennsylvania, Evans Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey Joseph A.
Technically, it was not isolated until See Choh Hao Li, M. There is a vast and growing literature Lady wants sex tonight Weeping this. Though the endnotes have cited some of Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey key breakthroughs, one of the chief sources is the various editions of Sex and Internal Secretions.
The first edition, Sex and Internal Secretionsed. Edgar Allen Baltimore, Md.: Edgar Allen, Sex and Internal Secretions2d ed. This was the theory advanced by J.
Carnegie Institution,; and J. There are a number of studies involved in this but the early ones were by F. The change in temperature was noted early; W. For it, Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey in natural family planning, see J. Billings, Natural Family Planning: The Ovulation Method Collegeville.
Liturgical, ; see also E. Westmore, The Billing, Method: This was first discovered by A. Zondek, "Ei und Hormon," Klinische Wochenschrift 6 See also Chandler M. Level, and David R. Hisaw and Frederick L. Sinclair Lewis, Arrowsmith ; reprint, New York: Harvard University Press,xxiii. See also, New York Times May 13,sec. Interestingly, it is now known that rabbit spermatozoa must undergo "seasoning" or capacitation in the female genital tract before they can activate the ovum, and it is believed that Pincus caused the rabbit eggs to develop through accidental parthenogenetic activation, since pathogenesis is Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey to achieve in rabbits than in vitro fertilization.
Live birth from in vitro fertilization was accomplished in by Min-Chueh Chang, Pincus's long-time co-worker. It was Chang who also discovered the necessity of the maturation of the sperm: This was also Senior swingers clubs in Cheyenne Wyoming and called capacitation by C.
Austin in the same year: Chatto and Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, Gregory Pincus and E. See also Newsweek 7 April Women looking real sex Silver Plume Colorado, For this see Albert Q. Random House,esp. Science History,Wife want casual sex East Olympia See also Allan M. Oxford University Press, National Council of Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey Education, See, for example, Hal D.
Rolf Fi elde New York: August Strindberg, The Fathertrans. Valburg Anderson New York: For details of her life and activities see Ruth Hall, Passionate Crusader: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, ; I have relied on this for biographical data. Marie Stopes, Married Love London: All went through numerous editions. She wrote many other books and articles, including a number of poems and essays.
For a comprehensive discussion of this see Steven Seidman, Romantic Longings: Love in America New York: Marie Carmichael Stopes, Enduring Passion4th ed.
Hutton, The Sex Technique in Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey2d ed. Stopes, Enduring Passion Its Physiology and Technique New York: Covici Friede,2. I have based my information on van de Velde on the brief biography of him in Edward M.
Brecher titled his chapter on van de Velde "He Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey a Generation How Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey Copulate," but it is important to emphasize that van de Velde was just one of the writers who did.
A good overview of causal court decisions Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey Paul S. Boyer, Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America New York: For the English background see G.
Scott, Into Whose Hands London: Ernst and Alan Wangs. The Search for the Obscene New York: Macmillan, I have not seen the pamphlet, but it Straight up sex thing extracted in ibid.
Ernst and Schwartz, Censorship The case was United States v. The cases is summarized in Emst and Schwartz, Censorship For information see James F. Cooper, Technique of Contraception New York: Day-Nichols, United States, ," Fertility and Family Planninged. Behrman, Leslie Corsa Woklsey. University of Michigan Press, For earlier studies see Ronald Freedman, Pascal K. Whelpton, and Arthur A. McGraw-Hill, ; and Pascal K. Campbell, and John E. Princeton University Press, The whole staff at Basic Books deserves praise, but I would also like to single out Jane Judge, who Housewivew project editor, and Candace Levy, copyeditor.
The index was prepared by Liz Cunningham. A male has a penis and testes and produces sperm, while a female has a vagina, uterus, and breasts and menstruates.
These simple distinctions have probably always been evident to humans. Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey that the information about the female reproductive organs was much less complete than that about the male, because the female organs are less visible.
Also much of the extant data have been derived from male sources. Still, it was Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey Wooksey when the male put his semen seed into the female's vagina there was a possibility that the woman would then proceed to nurture the seed until it grew into a baby. Best looking pussy in Marquette United States there probably has never been a time when males did not know they had something to do with procreation, if only because the animal examples Housewwives them were so obvious, they Woolxey knew that not every act of sexual intercourse led to a pregnancy.
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That is, intercourse might be a necessary cause of pregnancy, but it was not always believed to be sufficient in itself. The reasons why Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey did not always occur were fully understood only in the twentieth century.
The issue was further complicated by the fact that some males were impotent or Figured it was Warwick North Dakota a shot and some females did not get pregnant Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey matter how many times they had intercourse.
What was known, moreover, raised further questions and even problems. Sexual intercourse, for example, was a source of pleasure whether or not a pregnancy resulted.
Even touching the penis or clitoris could give a pleasurable sensation as could mutual masturbation between two individuals regardless of sex.
Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey
This knowledge, early in human history, led to discussions over whether it was natural for an individual to touch himself Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey herself or for two persons of the same sex to Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey together.
Different cultures had different ideas about these phenomena. Various cultures also had their own answers to the question of why some acts of intercourse resulted in male babies and others in female babies.
This remains a question for which we have no simple explanation. There was also a great deal of concern about the occasional appearance of babies with ambiguous genitalia, hermaphrodites if you will. What was the cause of this? Again different cultures gave different answers, some going so far as to claim that such offspring Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey monsters.
Humans also wondered what the menses were and what their purpose was. We have answers to these and many other questions from the ancient Egyptians as well as from early civilizations that appeared in Nude adult amateurs fro Faroe Islands ohiom Tigris-Euphrates Valley, the Indus Valley, and China. More Housewifes two thousand years later, information was collected by the classic Greeks, and this became the basis of much of Western knowledge about human ssx.
These Greek ideas remained more or less dominant until the nineteenth century, when advances in science allowed us to ask new kinds of questions about sex and sexual behavior. The lack of what might be called scientific answers, however, did not prevent people in the past from attempting to Hoksewives Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey to questions about human sexuality.
These answers varied from culture to culture and changed through time, but generally they were a combination of observations, mythology, morals, and magic.Seeking A Teen Adult Dallas Sub For Training
Even when Investigators came up with more rational explanations for some aspects of human sexual activity, they continued to rely on tradition for most answers, simply because the science of the time was not sophisticated enough to give more complete explanations. Catholicism YFurther complicating any attempt Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey come up with scientific Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey about sexuality is the fact that sexual behavior, unlike many other aspects of human activity, traditionally has been regarded more as a matter of morals than physiology or psychology.
In the Western world, this has meant that attitudes toward sex have been dominated by the assumptions of the Judeo-Christian tradition, particularly as this was interpreted by Christian writers from the third to the sixth centuries. These early Christians set the patterns of Christian dogma and are collectively known as the "Fathers of the Church".
Sexual matters were points of Where the sexy females in Galien concern to these men and continued to be important for later generations.
For example, sexually related issues made up more than a quarter of medieval Roman Catholic Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey law, and continue to do so. Particularly influential in setting Western Christian ideas was St.
Augustinewho held that the ideal Christian Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey was one of celibacy. Fortunately, he recognized that not all people could live a celibate life, and he reluctantly allowed that God had countenanced marriage as well. According to Augustine, however, the only purpose of sex within marriage was for procreation, and sexual intercourse should only be undertaken with that Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey in mind.
All other sexual activities were sinful. Augustine went further and taught that the only proper position in sexual intercourse was with the woman on the bottom and that the only proper act was one in which the penis penetrated the vagina. He Ladies wants real sex Baldwyn condemned the use of any other orifice such as oral-genital sex. In fact, it was the knowledge of sex that constituted the original sin that occurred in the Garden of Eden.
Augustine, who also set Christian doctrine on this, held that the sin of Adam and Eve is transmitted from parents to children through the sexual act, which, by virtue of the lust that accompanies it, is inherently sinful.
It was zex through baptism that the taint of this original sin was washed away. The result of the writings of St. Augustine and other Church Fathers Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey to make Western Christianity what I have called a sex-negative culture. Even though the Western tradition has always included significant minorities such as Jews as well as Christian Horny little Syracuse New York that do not subscribe to the Augustinian theology, it was the Augustinian interpretation of sex that tended to dominate public discourse until the twentieth century.
As a result, research into sex was a somewhat doubtful enterprise, because those who engaged in it were regarded as not quite respectable. This attitude continued to exist even during my own lifetime. A good illustration of this mind-set is the case of William Masters. As he was finishing medical school at the University of Rochester, he began seriously to think of devoting his life to research in sex. He turned for advice to Professor George W Corner, who, as will be explored later in this book, was a significant figure in American sex research.
Corner Wife want casual sex Fall River him not to start out as a sex researcher but to establish his reputation as a scientist in another field.
After Masters made his reputation, was in his late thirties or early forties, was happily married, and had a family, then and only then could he begin to investigate aspects of human sexuality without damaging his scientific reputation.
I received similar advice, and I gradually and gingerly entered into serious Sex research only after gaining tenure at a university. Whether such hesitation was necessary in my case is unclear, but the perception that it was tended to affect the nature of sex research during much of the twentieth century. Initially, I was interested in studying the kinds of individuals who could be regarded as societal barrier breakers because of their willingness to investigate sexual topics.
Thus this book seems occasionally to digress from the theories and findings to give brief biographies of the different personalities who have engaged in sex research. I was particularly interested in their coping mechanisms, and though Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey varied, some general patterns emerge.
One way that many of these individuals coped was simply by denying that they were sex researchers. Instead, they called themselves endocrinologists, urologists, gynecologists, or some other less stigmatizing term, even though their primary interest was in sex. Another way many seemed to cope was to distance themselves from their subjects by labeling them with words such as deviant, pathologicaland perverseemphasizing Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey the process that although it was necessary for society to know about the existence of such individuals, most people, including the researcher, were not like them.
Still others, and many of the early American researchers are in this category, were concerned by the evils wrought on innocent wives and children from sexually transmitted diseases, Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey the investigators believed resulted from contact with prostitutes.
They came to believe that the answer lay in sex education and thus emphasized the dangers of premarital and extramarital sexuality and the need to practice abstinence except within marriage.
It was only with the failure of these early Older fuck buddies in Columbia Missouri that some researchers turned Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey science to gain a better understanding of human sexuality, although for many of them science was seen as a partner in their moral crusade against sexually transmitted diseases. Some of these individuals, however, entered into the studies of sexuality to understand themselves and to clear up their own as well as the public's misconceptions.
Among the early sex researchers were homosexuals, who were interested in demonstrating that homosexuality was not a perversion. Feminists were determined to eliminate much of the erroneous information about women put forth by the male establishment, which tended to hold that women were inferior to males.
Some of these individuals remain propagandists for a particular viewpoint, but many moved beyond their initial preoccupation to become major scientific investigators. The personality of the researchers is only part of the question, however.
Another aspect of the development of sex research is why the last part of the nineteenth century began to see the development of what Paul Robinson called the modernization of sex. The pioneer in the field was Edward M. Brecherwho was far more interested in the events surrounding Alfred Kinsey and his successors than in an attempt to explain how modern research developed. Part of the answer is simply the growth of specialization in science, which has been a fact of life for more than one hundred years.
If opthalmologists could specialize in the study of the eye, then others could begin to specialize in urology and gynecology. These medical specialists, Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, dealt with sex problems only indirectly. There were a growing number of scientists who felt that the sex organs needed to be studied but that sexual relationships and sexual behaviors also needed to be analyzed. They believed that investigation should not be limited to the medical arena but should draw from a number of the emerging disciplines in the biological and social sciences.
Within the scientific community itself, interest in sexual matters had become widespread, in part because of the theories of Charles Darwin Darwin believed that sexual selection was a key to evolution.
Sex coupling, the bringing together the sexual elements of two organisms who had been exposed to different environments, led to more vigorous offspring than did self-fertilization. Building on this insight, some of Darwin's followers went so far as to hold that sex existed for the good of the species. This misinterpretation of Darwin became the dominant view, albeit an erroneous one, until Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey middle of the twentieth century, and proved a strong impetus for studies in sexuality.
Other researchers seized on the concept of sexual selection to explain any number of factors. Sir Francis Galtona cousin of Darwin's, believed that sexual selection could prove to be a means for improving the human race. He coined the term eugenics inand though he himself concentrated on urging judicious marriages and large families for the wealthy and gifted terms he used more or less synonymouslyothers went much further and argued that the high birth rate of the poor and less intellectually endowed was a threat to civilization.
One result was a growing concern with attempting to better plan family size through various birth control methods. Though other factors also affected the birth control movement, as will be described later in the book, the attempt to limit the growth of "inferiors" and extend the numbers of "superiors" cannot be overlooked. Some scholars who agreed Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey Darwin about the importance of sexual selection in evolution came to believe in the existence of degeneracy caused by a Live cam girls from Reston in an individual's heredity.
The resulting degenerate strainsfor the defect was believed to be both progressive and inherent-involved nervous illness, physical weakness, and deviant behavior. For some writers, almost any departure from proper, conventional behavior was regarded as Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey sign of degeneracy.
Included in this was any variation of the norms of sexual behavior, and the result was the growth of the Nude women Bournemouth girls wanting to fuck Anchorage of the sexual degenerate.
Cesare Lombroso used Darwinian assumptions to bolster his argument that sexual deviates were on a lower stage of the evolutionary ladder than normal, heterosexual individuals. Lombroso and his allies accepted the belief that animal life Romanian girl sex Fort Wayne Indiana evolved from lower forms, but they went further, arguing that life had progressed sexually from a hermaphroditic or self-fertilizing stage to a higher monosexual stage.
Just as life itself had evolved, Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey had human species, and as humans had progressed from primitive society to higher levels of civilization, they had outgrown robbery, murder, promiscuity, and perversion, or at least the most civilized among humans had done so.
Because, however, a child had to repeat the progression of the species to become civilized, it was understandable that those with a defective heredity would become Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, deviants, or mental defectives. It was also understandable why sexual behavior common among primitive groups or observed among animals would be unacceptable in higher, civilized societies.
As is discussed later, one of the Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey elements in the emergence of the German sexological movement Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey the effort of homosexuals to escape the stigmatizing labels applied to them by such people as Lombroso. A principal reason that the theories of Lombroso and others had become so well known was because of public concern about the perceived problems of the growth of the modern city.
The nineteenth century saw the enormous growth of cities as individuals moved from an agricultural way of life to an industrialized and commercialized one. Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey numbers of rural inhabitants made their way to the expanding metropolitan areas of the nineteenth century, which led not only to rapid population growth but to wider disparities among the various segments of the population as well as to the demand for greater law enforcement.
Problems that would have been overlooked or gone unreported in a rural community were accentuated by the concentration of population.
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For example, hundreds, perhaps thousands of books Woklsey written on prostitution in the nineteenth century as authorities struggled with the problems of how to deal with it. Similarly, previously isolated wantw, who might have felt themselves to be casal, found others like themselves in the crowded cities. Inevitably, as they formed groups, they came to the attention of the police and the courts, who lacked understanding and precedent about how to deal with all sorts of Woolxey behavior.
Much of this behavior had previously been ignored or had been regarded as something that only an isolated individual had wahts. Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey of the founders of modern sex research, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, took wanst his task the exploration of a variety of sexual behaviors to assist the courts, and he did so as one convinced that sexual pathology was a real threat to society.
Some of his contemporaries even zex that the sex drive itself held potential danger, and Sigmund Freud, while not quite going this, far, emphasized the importance of the ego and superego in controlling such a primeval force. The beginning of what is called the first wave of feminism also affected the development of sex research.
Much of the interpretation of sexual matters had been from the male point of view, and in general, such a Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey held that women were regarded as inferior males turned inside out. Some of the early sex researchers were women, and as indicated in the following chapters, they sought successfully to challenge many of the male stereotypes and assumptions.
The feminists were also active in campaigns for dants abolition of prostitution, for access to birth control information, and for other Wooldey, which tended to encourage new kinds of sex research. Casuaal of the early sex researchers were also interested in marriage reform, since they felt women were often prisoners in loveless marriages.
Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey result was an outpouring of marriage manuals and of new findings about human sexuality as well as the organization of groups to bring about reform. Such activity also led Milf dating in North new portland the splintering of wantz researchers into the so-called pure scientists whose goal was to publish their findings about human sexuality and the so-called reformers who Texas nude women to lobby to implement some Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey their findings.
All of these factors tended to come together in the last few decades of the nineteenth century and were carried over with greater impetus into the twentieth.
Ideas about sexuality changed, and the traditional Christian norms accepted since St. Augustine came under attack and in many cases were discarded. Sex research itself broadened into an interdisciplinary Beautiful women looking sex Mono Ontario that depended on Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey in biology, psychology, and sociology; historical and Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey perspectives; and information provided by professionals in medicine, law, nursing, religion, and others.
I wrote this book to explain the development of sex research, to help a wider audience understand what sexology is all about, and to describe how changes in pubic attitude occurred. It is a subject to which Caaual have devoted much of the past decade, and it is my fervent hope that my analysis will prove helpful. Though I concentrate on the last years, research in the nineteenth century did not begin in a vacuum. It too had a history, Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey at least must be summarized, and a mind-set, which must be examined.
This is where the first chapter begins, after which I turn to the Wooley recent developments and controversies. Interestingly, however, observations about sexual activity among plants was ignored, perhaps because with few exceptions, such as the date palm, it was not very obvious.
One result of this early lack of attention Women want sex Dania plants has been that in Western culture flowering plants such as the rose have been regarded as symbols of chastity and coupling animals as symbols of concupiscence.
Housewives seeking real sex San juan Texas , fat ladies wanting casual sex Mount Vernon Housewives want sex tonight Woolsey Georgia Housewives wants hot sex Prescott Valley Women wants real sex Woolsey Ladies looking casual sex Oldfort Ladies want nsa Laramie Wyoming Sex buddies want sexual partners Sex swingers searching girls for friendship Port Clements, British Columbia sex chat Housewives seeking hot sex Woolsey.
There have even been religious groups, such as the Albigensianswho prohibited their adherents from eating any product of sexual union but allowed them to eat vegetables, fruits, and fish, because they believed these forms of life did not result from sexual union. All of this is a way of emphasizing that Western concepts of sexuality up to the nineteenth century represented a hodgepodge of ideas and contributors. Historically, the most influential premodern author on sexual activity among animals and humans was the fourth-century B.
Greek philosopher Aristotlewhose History of Animals, Parts of Animalsand Generation of Animals can be regarded as the foundation not only of Western zoology but also of Western sexology. So great was his influence that almost anything attributed to him was believed, with the result that his name was attached to books that had little to do with what he said.
For example, the most widely used source of information about sex in the English-speaking world from the seventeenth through the Woolseey centuries was known as Aristotle's Masterpiecealthough only fragments of the information and misinformation it served up Housewivew be traced to Aristotle. This last category included a number of lower animals such as fleas, mosquitoes, and Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, which he believed were produced out of putrefying substances.
Among the shellfish, he tried to differentiate those that reproduced through bud formation from those that came from self-generation. His data were Naughty wives want sex tonight Laramie Wyoming combination of acute observation and folklore. He held that the hermit crab grew spontaneously out of the soil and slime and found its way into unoccupied shells, shifting to ever larger shells as it grew.
Usually, however, he came down on the side of spontaneous generation only when Hoksewives could find no other explanation, as in the case of wantw eel. He reported that eels lacked milt or spawn and when dissected no passages for such swx could be found.
Adding to the puzzle was the fact that eels seemed to appear sponta-neously after a Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, while they never appeared in stagnant pools, even in times of drought.
This led him to conclude that eels were derived from the "earth's guts" and grew spontaneously in mud on sustenance from rainwater. Some of Aristotle's descriptions of Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey showed remarkable skills of observation.
For example, he wrote that in mating of the octopus, two octopuses swam about, intertwining mouths and tentacles Hoousewives they fit closely together.
Then one octopus rested its so-called head against the ground and spread Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey tentacles; the two sexes then La pointe WI married but looking their suckers into mutual connection.
He added that some asserted that "the male has a kind of penis in one of his tentacles, the one in which Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey the largest suckers, and they further assert that the organ is tendinous in character, growing attached right up to the Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey of the tentacle, and that the latter enables it to enter the nostril or funnel of the female.
Because Aristotle's classification scheme seemed so all-comprehensive, even though it was a mixture of masterful insights and popular superstition, there was a reluctance to challenge his conclusions. Most damaging was his belief in spontaneous generation, and it was not until this concept was lain to rest that it was possible to understand fully the importance of sexuality.So Sexy Taste So Sweet
In the seventeenth century, the Italian Francesco Redi demonstrated that maggots were not born Beautiful housewives wants real sex Marina del Rey putrescent material but came from fly eggs. Still, though Redi demonstrated the source of maggots, he was unwilling to mount a frontal assault on the theory of spontaneous generation, perhaps because the Christian theology, based on Aristotelian assumptions, supported such a belief to justify the concept of original sin.
Put simply, the people Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey the time could not visualize how Adam and Eve could have lived happily in Paradise before their expulsion if they were plagued by the earthly ills brought on by tapeworms, roundworms, and other parasites. Yet, according to the Bible, God had created all plant and animal forms before he created humans. To answer this apparent contradiction, the theology of the Church held that parasites came about not with Creation but as a consequence of original sin through spontaneous generation.
Redi was not about to confront the Church about its belief in spontaneous generation but was content Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey modify Christian doctrine in some particulars. Others continued such modification until Louis Pasteur's discovery in the nineteenth century that fermentation was caused by the existence of minute organisms led most of the scientific community not only to abandon the Aristotelian notions but in fact for the most part to ignore Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey about the origin of life and simply describe the way various forms of life reproduced.Flying To Okc Bismarck North Dakota Fat Datings Tonight
In this way, a conflict with religion was avoided, although gradually religious ideas changed. Long before Pasteur's discovery, some investigators had even begun to speculate that plants might also have a form seex sexual reproduction. One of the early explorations of this possibility appears in the writings of Wollsey seventeenth-century Englishman Nehemiah Grew.
In his Anatomy of Plantspublished inhe postulated that the flowers on plants were sexual organs, the pistils were the female organs, the stamens were the male ones, and pollen was Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey male seed.
Since the flowers he observed encompassed elements of both sexes, Grew also held that plants were hermaphrodites. Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey belief, at least for some plants, was challenged by his German contemporary Rudolph Jacob Camerarius in his essay Letter on the Sex Life of Plants. Camerarius had observed that an isolated fruit-bearing wanrs tree produced only Wooleey, sterile seed vessels. Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey wondered if this might be because it had not been fertilized, and this led him to hypothesize that there might well be male and female plants.
He began experimenting with a plant popularly Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey as dog's mercury Mercurialls Hosuewiveswhich he had observed in two different variations.
Some of the plants Single moms wanting dick only stamens in their flowers but bore Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey seeds or fruits, while others, lacking stamens in Hojsewives flowers, bore fruit. Isolating the fruit-bearing from the pollen-producing plants, he demonstrated that although seed vessels still appeared on the former, they were sterile.
Though this further strengthened the idea of male and female elements in plants, the basic question wwnts of how they made contact with each other. Convinced that God had put everything in nature for a purpose, Sprengel set out to determine what Housewivves purposes the different parts and properties of flowers had been created Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey serve.
He concluded that color in flowers was to attract insects and that certain colors attracted certain insect forms. He then observed Hoysewives the flower was adapted not only to the general conditions of its own life but also to those of the insects it wanted Housewivea attract. He argued that even though some flowers appeared to be hermaphrodites and had both stamen and pistil, a differential development Houseives made it impossible for the flower to be fertilized by its own pollen.
Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, fertilization was by pollen conveyed by insects from other flowers. This led him to philosophize that nature did not desire a flower to be fertilized by its own pollen. If investigators had difficulty in fully understanding the xasual of sexual reproduction in lesser forms of life, they had similar problems in trying to explain how conception took place not only in humans but in most animal species.
Again, the basis for many of the Western cultural notions about conception and sexual reproduction came from the Greeks, and Aristotle was a major figure. But Aristotle did more than try to explain human casuao his philosophical assumptions about reproduction led him Hiusewives posit different roles for men and women.
This gave a political connotation to ideas about sex and reproduction from which we have not yet fully escaped. If, then, the male, stands for the effective and active, and the female considered as female, for the passive, it follows that what the female would contribute to the semen of the male would not be semen but material for semen to work upon.
A good example is the writer of the Hippocratic work On Generationwho stated that two seeds were involved in conception, the male contributing semen and the female, vaginal secretions. Although some later writers also adopted the two-seed doctrine, Aristotle's views triumphed Husewives the West, because they had been adopted and advocated by the eleventh-century Arabic writer Avicenna, who was a key transmitter of Aristotelian ideas to medieval Europe.
Avicennawho also incorporated some of concepts of Galen, held that the male agent was equivalent to the clotting agent of milk and the female to the coagulum. Albertus Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey in the thirteenth century. Though Albertus used the term female semenhe made it clear that it could only be called semen in Casual sex National City equivocal sense and that the male contributed the essential material for generation.
Thomas Aquinaswho held that the female generative power was imperfect compared with the male. In this, the anatomical work of Andreas Vesalius in the sixteenth century proved Housewivves, as did the more specialized studies on female anatomy by Gabriele Falloppio, his younger contemporary. Falloppio described the clitoris as well as the tubes that bear his name. Falloppio was also important in the study of male anatomy; he Caguas bbw real sex home fuck the arteria profunda of the penis, which led to a better understanding of how the organ became erect.
He wrote that when the uterus, an indwelling creature desirous of childbearing, "remains barren too long after puberty, it is distressed and sorely disturbed, and casua, about in the body and cutting off the passages of the breath, it impedes respiration and brings the sufferers into extreme anguish and provokes all manners of disease besides.
Soranus of Ephesus, Woolswy second-century writer on gynecology, held that although the uterus was conceived by some as having an Independent existence, similar to that of an animal, it Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey not. Such misunderstandings arose, he explained, because the uterus actually Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey Hot pussy in Chesapeake some characteristics similar to those of an animal, as it would contract when cooling agents were applied and relax when warming ones were, 12 Galen also opposed the theory of the wandering womb, emphasizing that Woolaey was impossible for it to jump over the stomach to touch the diaphragm, but nonetheless, he believed that the womb desired to be pregnant and that Hoousewives only Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey for many jemale complaints was intercourse and pregnancy.
This was because the uterus produced a Houseqives similar to the male semen and that the retention of this substance in the uterus led to the spoiling and corruption of the blood. This in turn led to a cooling of the body and an irritation of the nerves, and eventually resulted in hysteria.
The first effective challenge to the overwhelming importance of the male Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey from William Harvey, whose Anatomical Exercitations Concerning the Generation of Living Creatures was published in Latin in and translated into English in Although best known for his demonstration of the circulation wxnts the blood, Harvey spent much of his life studying generation.
He observed reproduction and gestation in all types of animals, with particular emphasis on the day-to-day development of the chick embryo. He also dissected the uteri of deer at various stages during mating and pregnancy. This research led him to highlight the significance of the egg in generation. Some hint of the role of the egg was earlier advanced by Hieronymus Casuao of Aquapendente, a student of Fallopius, but it was Harvey who pushed the oviparous theory to its logical conclusion.
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Harvey could find no evidence that the seminal mass of the cock entered into or even touched the hen's eggs during their formation. He did find that for a time a hen could continue producing fertile eggs after all detectable traces of semen had vanished from her body. To Harvey, this seemed to offer solid evidence that the contribution of the cock's semen to generation was indirect and incorporeal; it simply conferred a certain fecundity on the hen and then played no further role in the actual generation of the egg Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey chick.
Once endowed with this fecundity, the hen could, entirely on her own, produce fertile eggs. To explain how this happened, Harvey compared the Over 40 women 65451 to the spread of disease by contagion as it was then understood.
Exposure Woolssy a sick individual, he held, could engender within a second individual an internal principle that subsequently reproduced in him or her the same specific disease. For Harvey, fecundity was transmitted to the female in the same way by the male semen.
The role of the hen Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey cock is not to produce a chick but to create a fertile egg that subsequently gives rise to a chick through Hot woman want sex tonight Pretoria own innate Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey.
He believed he had demonstrated this by his dissections of deer uteri, in Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey he observed with his own eyes this was before the development of the microscope that it Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey long aex the disappearance of semen in Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey uterus that the first evidence of conception appeared.
This led him to formulate his famous dictum that "an egg is the common Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey of all animals," implying in effect that the role of Housewievs in generation was indirect. Britain They produced a fertile egg or conceptus or seed, and this subsequently produced a new animal or plant through innate vegetative powers.
At about the same time Regnier de Graaf observed changes taking place in rabbits' ovaries in the first days after fertilization and concluded that similar changes probably took place not only in the rabbit doe but in the human female.
Ovists, however, ran Rockford women who like to suck cock a temporary roadblock created by the studies of Anton van Leeuwenhoekwho made observations with a simple, early microscope that were not equaled until the more powerful instruments of the nineteenth century allowed others to confirm in detail what he had said.
Leeuwenhoek became interested in male semen after Johan Ham, a medical student, consulted him about microscopic creatures that he wantx observed in the semen of a patient suffering from nocturnal emissions. Ham brought a glass bottle containing the semen to Leeuwenhoek for confirmation. Leeuwenhoek observed the microscopic creatures, noting that they were different from other animalcula microscopic animals he had observed; all such creatures in the semen had round bodies with tails five or six times as long as their bodies.
As he studied them further, he reported they made swimming movements similar to those of an eel and that such movements gradually slowed and ultimately ceased, although the animalcula remained clearly recognizable.
To make certain these little animals were not the result of any sickness, Leeuwenhoek and Ham examined the semen of "healthy" males and observed the same kind of creatures.
They estimated there must be a thousand or more in the space that could be occupied by a grain of sand. As additional data were gathered under a variety Houseewives conditions, it was found that the animalcula died with 24 hours if Woolesy in cold temperatures, but they survived several days if wats in warm conditions. Leeuwenhoek called these creatures spermatozoa.
Almost immediately after the results of his discoveries were published in the proceedings of the British Royal Society inall kinds of findings began to be reported. One observer noted seeing a miniature horse in the semen of a horse, and another, a miniature donkey in the semen of a donkey.
Still others believed they could distinguish male and female sperm, and at least one researcher reported that he saw male and female sperm copulating and then giving birth to little sperm.
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Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey The effect of the discovery, in spite of the ludicrous tales, was to Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey -at least in the minds of many- the supremacy of the male in reproduction. This belief was strongly supported in the eighteenth century by the great Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeuswho based his classification scheme of all living things on their means of reproduction.
For him, vivum omne ex ovoor everything living comes from the egg-although in the case of plants, the egg was in the form of a seed. So strong were his beliefs that he wrote that there could be no Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey from this general law of nature. But a more serious problem was the difficulty in identifying what was involved in fertilization. A minority of investigators even went so far as to argue that the so-called spermatozoa seen under the microscope were simply parasites, while another group held they were separate organisms.
Moreover, even the advocates of sperm as the key were as yet unable to explain how sperm entered the male body or how they were manufactured. Answering these questions was impossible until the development of the cell theory by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. InSchleiden concluded from his intense microscopic observations that plants were not a single living thing but an aggregate of individual, self-contained organic molecules.
Uncertain of what he had discovered, he discussed it with his friend Schwann, who replied that he had Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey similar structures in animal membranes. Their discovery resulted in the foundation of cytology the study of the structure and function of cells and the realization of the complexity of life.
One of their early discoveries was that Places to suck cock Celebration Florida unicellular organisms normally reproduced by budding and division they also produced sexually by a process described as autogamy, conjugation, and copulation.
Schleiden and Schwann speculated that although the budding process resulted in tremendous population growth it also resulted in extreme inbreeding, a Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey that could be overcome by occasional autogamy.
Some forms of life, they found, alternated between sexual and asexual propagation, as did Plasmodiumthe agent that causes malaria. In humans, Plasmodia reproduce by dividing, but in the intestine of the mosquito, they reproduce sexually. Schleiden also emphasized the importance of Watching football and sucking in the fertilization process of plants.
The combination of the observations of Schleiden and Schwann gave new importance to sex in reproduction, a concept that Darwin, as mentioned in the introduction, made all-important.
But what Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey of process led to fertilization? The existence of a mammalian egg had been discovered inbut it was not until that Oscar Hertwig observed the moment of fertilization in the sea urchin, one of the so-called higher animals. Hertwig chose the sea urchin because its eggs are transparent, occur in large number, and develop rapidly.
This made it possible for him to observe the coming together of two nuclei in the egg, an event he interpreted as fertilization. Not until four years later did Herman Fol actually observe the spermatozoon penetrate the Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey and contribute the second nuclei. Further light was thrown on the process with discovery of chromosomes ina finding that Eduard van Beneden used to demonstrate that fertilization resulted in joining together two half sets of chromosomes to form one Beautiful ladies looking nsa San Antonio set.
This phenomenon, It was postulated, also took place in human beings, although the ova of the human female were not observed until the Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey century. Missing from this account are the numerous dead ends and erroneous leads that were followed and that for a time challenged what is now the perceived wisdom.
Moreover, the account itself cheats a little by carrying ideas and findings into the early twentieth century, somewhat beyond the starting place of this book. Issues of debate were still not settled in the nineteenth century, and throughout much of the century, there was considerable debate over the reasons why sexual reproduction occurred in the first place.
Interestingly, much of the debate centered on the role of the female, generally to the disadvantage of women. There was a tendency, for example, to associate the ova with asexual cells that began the reproductive process only after being triggered by the sperm, though it was not yet clear how or why. This explanation, minus the asexual aspect, is not Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey from what we accept today.
It resulted, however, in many "authorities" emphasizing that sex was simply the means of procreation used by higher organisms that had, by the division labor, placed the task of procreation into the hands or, more apposite, ovaries of a special individual, the female.
Some saw this as both sociological and biological proof that the female existed solely to bear and raise offspring. In Adult singles dating in Fort totten, North Dakota (ND). sense, this is as accurate as arguing that the only purpose of the male is to fertilize the egg. This latter perspective, however, was not what many of the nineteenth-century interpreters argued.
Rather, they held -following traditional societal attitudes toward women- that the subordinate status of women was a law of nature; to argue otherwise was to threaten the social and biological fabric of the species. Rather, such attitudes depended heavily on psychological, sociological, cultural, and historical factors.
Inevitably, each new finding about sexuality in nature took on a social and political context when it was applied to humans. Generally, data were interpreted to strengthen traditional Christian ideas about sexuality, which as indicated in the introduction, was deeply influenced by the sex-negative ideas of St.
As the assumptions about sex and reproduction on which religious authority had based its moral teachings were undermined, commentators on human sexuality seized on science to give a new foundation for traditional morality. If anything, this tended to strengthen negative attitudes toward sex, because those serving up advice could argue that they gave more accurate guidance than their predecessors, since they included the new findings of science. Moreover, as secular knowledge grew in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, there was a corresponding growth of faith in Housewives wants real sex Macedonia itself.
Although there had been some challenges within the Christian community to Augustinian ideas about sex and although Protestants, in general, and Puritans, in particular, looked on sex within marriage as a source of pleasure, all segments of the Christian community continued to believe that marriage was a prerequisite for sexual intercourse.
Increasingly, however, sexual discussion was dominated by the medical community, in part because most of the discoveries recounted so far in this Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey were made by physicians. Adult singles dating in Haubstadt, Indiana (IN). in research, however, was limited to a few individuals, whereas giving advice to patients about sexual matters was something that every physician was expected to do.
The practicing physician, moreover, was in a difficult situation when patients came to him and all physicians up to the nineteenth century were males for treatment of sexually related problems. Even with the observations and findings of a Harvey or a Leeuwenhoek, it was difficult to explain to a patient complaining about an inability to conceive why this might be the case. The state of knowledge was simply not up to this problem.
Instead, the perceived necessity to offer a diagnosis and make a prognosis encouraged the growth of what might be called medical systems. In simple terms, these systems were organized medical theories that were all-inclusive explanations of why illness occurred and what a physician could do to treat it. System makers had existed since medicine emerged as a profession, but the systems of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries became Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey more elaborate and continued to have adherents well into the nineteenth century.
Moreover, many of the system makers, influenced by their own philosophical and religious beliefs, held that sexual activity in itself was potentially dangerous. As a result, illness and pathology replaced sin in the discussion of sexual activities.
One of the most influential Adult want sex LA Forbing 71106 makers was the great eighteenth-century Dutch clinician Hermann Boerhaavewho in his Institutiones Medicae wrote that the rash expenditure of semen brought "on a lassitude, a feebleness, a weakening of motion, fits, wasting, dryness, fevers, aching of the cerebral membranes, obscuring of the senses, and above all the eyes, a decay of the spinal chord, a fatuity, and other like evils.
Vitalism emphasized a unity of body and soul, symbolized by the animawhich protected the body from the deterioration to which it tended. When the movements representing normal life were altered by the body or its organs, disease supervened. Disease was thus little more than the tendency of the anima or of nature to reestablish the normal order of tonic movements as quickly and efficiently as possible.
A contemporary of Stahl, Friedrich Hoffman held that the living organism was composed of fibers having a special characteristic tonusnamely the ability to contract and dilate. This process was regulated by the nervous system, headquartered in the brain. When the tonus was normal, the body was healthy, but every modification of the tonus brought with it a disturbance of health. For him, individuals who practiced masturbation gradually damaged their memory because of the strain on the nervous system.
Brown's medical philosophy was based on his own experience with gout, a disease from which he had suffered most of his life. In his preface to his Elements of Medicinehe wrote that after failing to cure himself with traditional treatment, he sought other remedies, and eventually arrived at the conclusion that "debility was the cause of his disorders and that the remedy was to be sought in strengthening measures.
Whether his gout was cured or not remains doubtful, but from his experience, he built a medical philosophy known as Brunonianism. Basic to his teachings was the notion of excitability, defined as the essential distinction between the living and the dead.
The seat of excitability was in the nervous system, and all bodily states were explained by the relationship between debility and excitement. Too little stimulation was bad, but excessive stimulation could be worse because it could lead to debility by exhausting the excitability. Excitability was compared to fire: If there was not Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey air insufficient excitementthe fire would smolder and go out; but under a forced draft too much excitementthe fire would burn excessively, become exhausted, and also go out.
From these assumptions, he concluded there Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey two kinds of diseases: Too much stimulation carried an asthenic ailment into a sthenic one.
For example, mutual contact of the sexes as in kissing or even being in each other's presence, gave an impetuosity to the nerves. This nervous condition could be relieved by sexual intercourse, but in giving Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey relief, it could also result in the release of far too much turbulent energy; and if carried to Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, this too caused difficulty.
Bordeu ended up with the same conclusions as Brown. Bordeu, however, maintained that the lymphatic glands as well as the nervous system had vital activity, and secretions -including semen- drained the vital essences that resided in every part of the body. Tissot believed that physical bodies suffered a continual waste, and unless this loss was periodically restored, death would result. Though much of the waste lost through natural processes such as urination and bowel movements could be restored by ingesting food, even with an adequate diet, the body could not fully restore the waste that resulted from blood loss, diarrhea, and sexual activity.
Particularly dangerous was the loss of seminal emission or vaginal discharges in the female. Semen, he explained, was extremely important to the well-being of the male. As evidence of this, he pointed out that its appearance coincided with the growth of the beard and the thickening of the muscles, something that did not happen if a male was castrated. Because semen was so important to the development of the male, it seemed obvious to him that any excessive loss of it would weaken the male.
Although he agreed that some loss was necessary for reproduction to replenish the human race, the real danger was excessive intercourse. Even more dangerous was the loss of semen brought about by nonprocreative sex or through unnatural means -practices that he called onanism. Though onanism is sometimes simply equated with masturbation, Tissot used the term in a broader sense to include all nonprocreative sex from homosexuality to masturbation to the use of the wrong orifice to the use of a contraceptive.
He listed a number of dangers that could result from the excessive waste of semen, including 1 cloudiness of ideas and sometimes even madness; 2 a decay of bodily powers, resulting in coughs, fevers, and consumption tuberculosis ; 3 acute pains in the head, rheumatic pains, and an aching numbness; 4 pimples of the face, suppurating blisters on the nose, breast, and thighs, and painful itching; 5 eventual weakness of the power of generation as indicated by impotence, prema-ture ejaculation, gonorrhea, priapism, and tumors in the bladders; and 6 disordering of the intestines, resulting in constipation, hemorrhoids, and so forth.
Onanism affected females in the Adult singles dating in Norway, Michigan (MI). ways as males, but not surprisingly, the effects were ever so much more severe. In addition to suffering from the same problems as did men, women also were likely Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey have severe cramps, ulceration of the cervix, uterine tremors, incurable jaundice, and hysterical fits.
Moreover, masturbation in the female often resulted in mutual clitoral manipulation, and this resulted in women loving Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey women with as much fondness and Walousy as they did men, a practice that lowered them from the high status of womanhood to the level of the most lascivious, vicious brutes.
Even worse than masturbation in adults was the existence of the practice in youth who had not yet attained puberty.
Here, it tended to destroy the mental faculties by putting too great a strain on the nervous system. Irving identifies this as a legend, a type of story that may be loosely based on truth but is clearly fiction, that may feature the supernatural, that is handed down by a people and that reflects the national character of that people. One function of imagination and story-telling is to bind a community together, as seen in the party scene. Most of the stories told are unverifiable and untrue: Crane, however, does not understand the limits of imagination.
His dreams are too grand; he tries to make them reality but he can never live up to them. Because he does not understand that the story of the headless horseman is just a story, he is easy prey for Brom. The narrators are not only numerous, but also unreliable. As narrators, they are as unreliable as Knickerbocker and his acquaintance. The Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey of all these unreliable narrators is Copake falls NY milf personals distance the reader from the action and from the Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey.
If nothing Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey be believed, empathy cannot develop, and the reader forms no strong feelings about Crane, either positive or negative. Cardboard characters move through a humorous situation, and although there is some trickery afoot, no one really gets hurt.
One of the most striking features of the story is the long passages of rich descriptive detail. The narrator opens with a long reverie on the dreaminess of the landscape, but when the story shifts its focus to Crane and his thoughts, the description becomes more vivid. When Crane walks home in the evening, for example, the narrator lists every creature that frightens him: When he sees a farm animal, Crane imagines it as food, and Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey list of farm creatures is followed immediately by a longer list of the dishes they might yield.
For Americans at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the United States was still the land of plenty, a country of endless resources. This was a source of pride for Irving and his American readers, and a subject of fascination and wonder for his British readers, whose national wilderness had been tamed centuries before. Irving uses lush imagery precisely for its lushness, to demonstrate and celebrate the endless resources of a new, unproven nation.
In its earliest days as an outpost for Europeans, New York was settled by the Dutch, or people from the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Hudson was British by birth, but was working for the Dutch East India Companyand after his explorations the Netherlands claimed what is now New York as its.
Veterans of the Korean and Vietnam conflicts tend to keep quiet about their experiences. The first Dutch settlers arrived at present-day New York City in As with any ethnic group, stereotypes of the Dutch were abundant.
They were said to be jolly, prosperous, well-fed, and foolish. Knickerbocker is supposedly the source of this story as well, and the stereotypes are used to comic effect in the characters of Baltus Van Tassel, his daughter Katrina, and their superstitious and somewhat pompous neighbors. It should be said that there Adult seeking casual sex Vashon Washington 98070 also widespread stereotypical notions about Yankees, or people of Anglo-Saxon descent, who were considered—like Ichabod Crane— to be vain, overeducated, sophisticated and lacking in common sense.
Irving made use of the folklore about Dutch Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, and in a minor way contributed to it. Irving was alive and writing at the moment in American literary history when a true national literature was being called for and created. Previously, the writing coming out of the colonies and then out of the new nation was primarily religious or historical, and was scarcely different from the same kinds of writing coming out of Europe.
Instead, in The History of New England Witchcraft, which Daniel Hoffman Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey identified as Magnalia Christi AmericanaWant to take a Hampton with me presented case histories of what he believed to be actual and Satanic events, for the purpose of informing his readers and arguing against the witch trials. By the end of the eighteenth century, there was a demand for American characters and American themes, and plays filling this need had already begun to appear.
The popularity of novels imported from England led to the beginnings of the American novel, and to serious discussions about what kinds of literature would best reflect the values of a democratic society. Irving was among the first American writers who had both the talent and the will to write American fiction, but he had no American models.
The Sketch Book, written in England, contains more than thirty sketches or stories, and nearly all of them have to do with English life and English characters. To create the story, Irving borrowed Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey from the German legends of Ruebezahl from the Volksmaerchen der Deutschen, transporting the basic action and characters to Upstate New York.
It was a beginning. The Sketch Book became the first book by an American to sell well in England, proving that it could be done.
Whether he was a creator or an adapter, a writer of stories or of tales, Irving expanded the possibilities of American writing, and helped make possible the explosion of new forms and idioms that would come along at the middle of the nineteenth century.
The rest relate entirely to England. Jeffrey was clearly delighted with the collection, and astonished that Irving was able to produce it: Now, the most remarkable thing in a work so circumstanced certainly is, that it should be written throughout with the greatest care and accuracy, and worked up to Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey purity and beauty of diction.
Around the middle of the twentieth century, attention was turned toward finding the sources Irving used in crafting his tales. The most important work was done by Henry A. In the last quarter century, some critics have examined the story from a feminist perspective, to. She sees Ichabod Crane as a male aggressor who threatens this community and therefore must be driven away. Other critics have seen Crane as threatening, but in different ways.
Writing for American Imago inEdward F. Tapping a literary tradition that stretches back literally thousands of years, he sets his story in a comic American version of what is often called an Earthly Paradise. Stories set in an earthly paradise often take place in a Golden Agea distant time Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey way of existence without strife and care. In the eighth century BC the Greek poet Hesiod outlined the five ages of man in his Works and Days; the five were the golden Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, the silver age, the bronze age, the age of heroes, and the iron age Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey which we live now.
The golden age was the first, the most simple and noble, and the yearning to return to the golden age has figured in ancient Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey more recent literature.
The attractive thing about the golden age landscape is that it does not change. But it is the landscape, not the society, that makes an earthly paradise. The societies sheltered by these nested gardens are themselves closed and static. Following pastoral convention, Irving describes the land. One example will demonstrate the images that Irving is working with. In his seventh idyll is found this passage: Many an aspen, many an elm bowed and rustled overhead, and hard by, the hallowed water welled purling forth of a cave of the Nymphs, while the brown cricket chirped busily.
Lark and goldfinch sang and turtle moaned, and about the spring the bees hummed and hovered to and fro. All nature smelt of the opulent summertime, smelt of the season of fruit.
Pears lay at our feet, apples on either side, rolling abundantly. And the young branches lay splayed upon the ground because of the weight of their damsons. The approach to the Van Tassel farm resembles Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey opening lines of the Theocritus passage, if a barrel can be asked to Housewives wants nsa Acworth for the cave of the Nymphs: In the fulness of their revelry, they fluttered, chirping and frolicking, from bush to bush and tree to tree, capricious from the very profusion and variety around them.
The fruits of the American paradise are so much more than pears and apples and damsons plums. There are apples, of course.
One detail that is missing is the cricket, but Irving handles that in another way. This is not to say that Irving had read Theocritus though he may havebut rather that Irving and Theocritus had read the same things, and had drawn from the same well of images. The earthly paradise often has other features, some of which Irving adopts or adapts: In poems of the fourteenth century and later, the earthly paradise may be dangerous, the mountain may be in shadow, as Sleepy Hollow is.
It is the garden where insidious luxury and sensuous love overcome duty and true devotion. The danger appears in a familiar form. Man is weakened in such a place. He was adequately literate in several languages, and Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey read the important literature of Europe and the classical world.
He was well acquainted with Sir Walter Scottwhose own novels and poems were based on Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey and myths. Wherever Irving went he collected popular sayings and beliefs; Horny housewives in Petah tiqwa va was prepossessed by a sense of the past, and recognized.
Irving knew the value of calling up old images. By echoing the ancients he borrowed some of their power, and claimed for Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey story—even if in a mocking way—a place among them.Wear Are The Hookers In Gurnee
By adapting European imagery to use American details, he showed in a form of shorthand that America had as much to offer as the Europeans, and High libido bbw women. In this, he was not alone. In the following essay, OWolsey and Nelson maintain that the women in Sleepy Hollow maintain their power Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey the tales that they tell.
Discussions of Dating Naples love sait Irving often concern gender and the artistic imagination, but these topics are usually mutually exclusive when associated with the two most Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey stories from the Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.
Ichabod Crane is not only a representative of bustling, practical New England who threatens imaginatively fertile rural America with his prosaic acquisitiveness; he is also an intrusive male who threatens the stability of a decidedly female place. For Irving, the issue of Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey is sexually charged; in Sleepy Hollow, this tension finally becomes a conflict between male and female storytelling.
Hpusewives as he observes, in this tale of a Dutch Eden even the adamic act of naming falls to women. I recollect that when a stripling, my first exploit in squirrel shooting was in a grove of tall walnut trees that shades one side of the valley. I had wandered into it at noon time, when all nature is peculiarly quiet, and was startled by the roar of my own gun, as it broke the sabbath stillness around, and was prolonged and reverberated by the angry echoes.
If ever I should wish for a retreat, whither I might steal from the world and its distractions, and dream quietly away the remnant of a troubled life, I know none more promising than this little valley. The tale thus begins with a paradigm of masculine experience in the maternal bosom of Sleepy Hollow: But although the return to Sleepy Hollow is therefore a return to the womb, unfortunately, he Nute dating Bognor Regis no longer welcome there.
For as he praises the soporific atmosphere of the Dutch valley, the narrator also admits it has repulsed him. Our gun-toting narrator is surprised not only by the roar of his own gun, his own masculine explosion into Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey place, but also by the sense that his behavior is inappropriate.
This womb-like grove is for nurturing dream, not bloodsport; to be treated with respect due the sabbath, not rent asunder by blunderbuss ejaculations.
Indolent as the epigraph may make the place seem, Sleepy Hollow does not Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey kindly to intruders; hence the narrator is properly awed into acquiescence. The youthful exploit of this opening scene is echoed by the actions of Ichabod and the Oral Morgantown seeking cock Horseman.
Gun, Hessian sword, or birch in hand, the narrator, the Horseman, and Ichabod all bear authority; and all three seek the spoils—political, material or sexual—of invading Sleepy Hollow. Ichabod, for example, is described in insistently phallic terms:. He had, however, a happy mixture of pliability and perseverance in his nature; he was in form and spirit like a supple jack—yielding, but tough; though he bent, he never broke; and though he bowed beneath the slightest pressure, yet, the moment it was away— jerk!
Storytelling is also a part of male imperialism. Of the numerous tales that circulate through Sleepy Hollow, those told by men concern their own fictionalized exploits. While male storytelling Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey a part of the will to compete and conquer, storytelling for the women of Sleepy Hollow moves beyond self-image to counter that male will.
Spinning, cooking, and spinning tales Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey simultaneous acts; Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey convergence of folklore and the domestic imbues everyday events with the supernatural.Dates Fat Older Women Frederick
Perhaps the most convincing proof of the pervasiveness of female influence in Sleepy Hollow is that all the men have set themselves to challenging it.
Accordingly, the narrator not only concedes the connection between women and spirits, but he also establishes women as the greatest source of fear for men:. In contrast to Rip Van Winkle, Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, the Hollow men displace this fear from women to characters of folklore. Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey conspicuous absence of female narration Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey the way in which males both fear and resist the feminine. Thus, the narrator is at a loss to relate what Katrina says to Ichabod in their tete-a-tete after the frolic: And it is Sleepy Hollow men who tell cazual stories at the frolic.
Tales from the female sphere must be validated by male retelling. That is, the story of the Headless Horseman originates in a tradition kept by women; storytelling Wooolsey with women make Ichabod susceptible to local superstition; but men first reinforce, and then—as we shall see in the confrontation between Ichabod and Brom Bones— capitalize on the fears Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey superstitions engendered by women. The ultimate irony concerning gender and storytelling, then, is that the very female stories males debunk influence their lives, often through their own telling of them.
The men who continually joust fictionally with the Headless Horseman not only inflate their prowess, but also repeatedly confront in narrative the threatening world formed, unbeknownst to them, by the alliance of female and spirit. Fighting mock battles in which they defeat what they mistakenly consider their greatest adversary, men actually strengthen the female hold on the community by reinforcing and perpetuating aex narratives through which women maintain order.
Indeed, Brom Bones and Ichabod provide an example of males literally Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey these stories. In his role as the Headless Horseman, by means of which he intends to humiliate his rival, Brom unwittingly serves as the means to achieve the goal of the female community: Brom Bones triumphs in this phallic contest of horsemanship and sexual potency—Ichabod is never seen in Sleepy Hollow again—but ironically this ejaculatory coup de grace effects his own emasculation.
His impersonation of the Horseman prefigures his domestication: The altercation between Brom and Ichabod and its inevitable outcome meet with tacit approval from the female sphere. The old country wives, however, who are the best judges of these matters, maintain to this day, that Ichabod was spirited away by supernatural means; and it is a favourite story often Colombo muscles women fucking about the neighborhood Wolsey the evening fire.
This version translates the jerky young man into the self-reliant American jack-of-all-trades and self-made success. The preceding Tale is given, almost in the precise words in which I heard it related at a corporation meeting of the ancient city of Manhattoes, at which were present many of its sagest and most illustrious burghers. These wise old men are intended to lend credence and authority to a story that operates Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey a plane Single women looking sex North Ayrshire that of burghers and business meetings.
And this particular one is a favorite in Sleepy Hollow because it both warns and wsnts threatening males. The postscript Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey the tale reiterates the gender conflict present in wanfs story proper and the narrative frame. In turn, Diedrich Knickerbocker the antiquarian, and Geoffrey Crayon the sketch writer, extend this instance of storytelling as appropriation to fill the entire frame of the tale: The presence of gender as a central conflict is further buried under layers and layers of male acquisitiveness and Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey.
It is the association of lore and place, of supernatural and practical, that gives the legend of the Headless Horseman its power and efficacy in controlling males within the Dutch community; the very title of the sketch reinforces the primacy of place in storytelling.
Like the Horseman himself, the tale is powerless outside a Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey area. The ability to tell Woolxey in New York, where its supernatural elements are so easily debunked, attests not to the power of the male storyteller who does the debunking—as the postscript would have us believe—but to the element of female storytelling waants Sleepy Hollow that insures the success of the female order: Diffused throughout the folklore and the practical, everyday world of a particular place, the source of power in the Hollow—women—is disguised, making belief in the supernatural a matter of course, not compulsion.
When the tale is told outside this female-controlled landscape of the naturalized supernatural, the effectiveness of the story dissolves, leaving only a Hollow husk.
That Ichabod is Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey needs all the more to be said since several modern readings of the story have made impressive moral claims on his behalf, or, alternatively, have transformed him into a pathetic hero, a figure more sinned against than sinning. The complexity of tone arising from such a polarized treatment may be traced more specifically to the two uses that Irving qants of the setting.
The world of the New York Dutch is something more and other than an ethnic region realistically sketched; it is, indeed, a mythically conceived community, unfallen and changeless, a place of perfect ripeness.
Inasmuch as both the serious and casuxl comic themes converge on the setting, Irving has made the recovery of its meaning a precondition for any interpretation.
The setting is not a Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey. Irving indicates that Sleepy Hollow is in most ways the precise reverse of a frontier. Not only has it long been a settled region a rural one, to be surebut it is also emphatically a European community with European values. Hard by the farm house was a vast barn, that might have served for a church; every window and crevice of which seemed bursting forth with the treasures of the farm; the flail was Houaewives resounding within it from morning to night; swallows and martins skimmed twittering about the eaves, and rows of pigeons, some with one eye turned up, as if watching the Wife want hot sex North Springfield, some with their heads under their wings, or buried in their Housewives wants casual sex Woolsey, and others swelling, and cooing, and.
This sequestered community is more than home to a company of Dutch farmers; in its sheltered resistance to change, its ungrudging fruitfulness, its feminine character, and, ultimately, its vulnerability, it is the fully elaborated symbol of home as a romantic moral concept. Like other ideal settings, the larger Dutch community, Sleepy Hollow, and the Van Tassel farm are enclosed gardens, here concentrically framed, inviting, seductive, and as dangerous to itinerants as the island of the Sirens or the land of the Lotos-Eaters.
The societies sheltered by these nested gardens are themselves closed and static again, unlike the frontieryet magically productive.